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June 11, 2024

Unlocking the Power of Chain Signatures on NEAR Protocol

Key Points


Blockchain technology has revolutionized various industries, offering decentralized solutions and new ways to manage digital assets. However, as the number of blockchains grows, users and developers face the complex challenge of managing multiple wallets, private keys, and ensuring seamless asset transfers across different platforms. NEAR Protocol addresses these challenges with an innovative approach called chain signatures.

The Solution: Chain Signatures on NEAR Protocol

NEAR Protocol, a blockchain designed to simplify user interactions with multiple blockchains, introduces chain signatures as a solution to the complexity of managing assets across various platforms. By abstracting the underlying technology, NEAR enables users to interact with blockchain applications without needing to understand the technical details.

Enhancing User Experience

User-Friendly Onboarding

One of the first barriers new users face when entering the world of Web3 is creating a crypto wallet, managing recovery phrases, and obtaining initial funds. NEAR's FastAuth addresses this by allowing users to create accounts using just their email addresses. This removes the need for seed phrases and makes account recovery straightforward, enhancing the user experience.

Gas Fee Management with Relayers

Another significant hurdle is the need for users to have crypto funds to cover transaction fees. NEAR's relayers solve this by allowing developers to subsidize gas fees, enabling users to start using dApps without acquiring funds. This is facilitated through meta-transactions, where relayers attach NEAR to cover the fees and pass the transactions to the network.

Macarena López Morillo
Head of People
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Deep Dive into Chain Signatures

Concept of Chain Signatures

Chain signatures enable NEAR accounts to control assets on other blockchains. Using deterministic derivation paths, a NEAR account can derive unique addresses on target blockchains, such as Ethereum or Bitcoin. This allows a single NEAR account to manage multiple blockchain addresses securely and efficiently​ (NEAR Documentation)​​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Technical Mechanics

Derivation Paths: These paths are strings (e.g., ethereum-1, bitcoin-1) that, combined with the NEAR account, derive specific addresses on other blockchains. This deterministic method ensures that the same NEAR account and path always produce the same foreign address​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Multichain Smart Contracts: Smart contracts on NEAR handle requests for signatures on other blockchains. These contracts recursively call themselves, waiting for the MPC service to sign the transaction and return the signature components necessary for constructing a valid transaction​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Multi-Party Computation (MPC): MPC ensures that private keys are never exposed by splitting the signing process among multiple nodes. Each node generates a part of the signature, which is then combined to create a complete signature without revealing any single node's private key​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Real-World Use Cases

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Chain signatures open up new possibilities for DeFi applications. For instance, users can swap assets like Bitcoin and Ethereum seamlessly across different blockchains. A smart contract on NEAR can manage deposits and execute swaps, enabling cross-chain exchanges without the need for multiple accounts​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Cross-Chain Asset Management

Beyond DeFi, chain signatures facilitate the management of NFTs and other digital assets across different blockchains. Users can hold and trade assets on various platforms using a single NEAR account, making cross-chain interactions more accessible and efficient​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Security and Reliability

Security Features of Chain Signatures

Chain signatures leverage MPC to ensure that private keys are never exposed, enhancing the security of cross-chain transactions. This method distributes the signing process across multiple nodes, ensuring that no single party has access to the complete private key​ (NEAR Documentation)​.

Reliability in Cross-Chain Transactions

NEAR's smart contracts are designed to handle the recursive process of signature generation, ensuring that transactions are accurately signed and executed across different blockchains. This reliability is crucial for maintaining trust and efficiency in cross-chain operations​ (NEAR Documentation)​​ (NEAR Documentation)​.


Chain signatures on NEAR Protocol represent a significant advancement in blockchain technology, offering a seamless and secure way to manage assets across multiple blockchains. By simplifying user interactions and enhancing security, NEAR is paving the way for broader adoption and more sophisticated applications in the decentralized world.

Explore NEAR Protocol and integrate chain signatures into your applications to leverage the full potential of blockchain interoperability.

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